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  • We found evidence of this in


    We found evidence of this in a study conducted in the United States by Heydenberk et al. (2003), in which ten groups of elementary school students were trained in integrated (i.e. cooperative) resolution conflict strategies, alongside with their teachers. The ten groups were compared with eight witness groups which took no training. The research was conducted over a period of five years. The effects of the students’ moral reasoning abilities were measured for the ten groups and compared with the eight witness groups. The research concluded that there was a significant improvement in the students’ moral reasoning abilities. In the field of management Soliman et al. (2014) report on the follow-up of a group of 64 managers over 6 months, prior, during and after negotiation training, and on the prolonged follow-up of a subset of 11 people from the larger group of 64, over 12 more months. They identify that people who manage to reduce the gap between how they are perceived and how they see themselves do benefit from the training. They learn to better analyze the context of a negotiation and they are more likely to choose a cooperative strategy when it is appropriate. However, to the best of our knowledge this is the only direct investigation in the field of management of how an increase in knowledge can help negotiators chose a cooperative strategy.
    Conclusion This led us to the belief that although the organization and its environment can be a source for conflict, it is only “managed” positively or negatively at the individual level. The individual is at the dhpg of action in conflict management (Fig. 4). It all depends on “his” or “her” capacity to reach agreement with the “other” during conflict, in such a context. Of course the main limitation of this article is that it is based on a review of literature. The need that we mentioned in part II, for more research illuminating “the conditions that give rise to naturally occurring cooperation” in organizations (Smith et al., 1995) still remains to be answered.
    Introduction According to Kamarudin, Sufian, and Nassir (2016) Islamic and conventional banks operate on different principles. Among others the Islamic banking system prohibits interest (Riba’) and substitutes it with the principle of Profit and Loss Sharing (PLS) and is based on Syari’ah rules (Ariff, 1988; Ariff, 2006). Despite differences in principles, Islamic banks share the same objective as their conventional bank peers i.e. to enhance shareholders’ value or wealth creation through profit maximization (Olson & Zoubi, 2008). To remain competitive Islamic banks have to efficiently utilize their scarce resources so as to attain the most optimal profit level. Therefore, it would be reasonable to expect Islamic banks strive to be profit efficient. Southeast Asian countries especially Malaysia, Indonesia and Brunei are one of the largest concentration Muslims in the world. There were approximately 61.4%, 88.1%, and 51.9% of Muslim population in Malaysia, Indonesia and Brunei respectively (Pew Research Center, 2011). Khan and Bhatti (2008) reported that Southeast Asia represent as one of the central hubs of Islamic banking and finance. Islam has greatly influenced the economic growth of these countries in last three decades. Islamic financial institutions such as Islamic banks are well-established and operating efficiently. The efficient Islamic banking industry contributed to the stability of the financial system and better able to withstand negative shocks (Venardos, 2005). Given the rapid development of the Islamic banking sector, it is reasonable to expect that the performance of Islamic banks has become the center of attention among Islamic bank managers, stakeholders, policymakers, and regulators. Despite its humble beginning, Islamic banks have blossomed throughout the world. The Islamic banking system has today become more competitive compared to the conventional banking system. At present, Islamic banks have presence in more than 75 countries, from Malaysia to Bahrain to Europe and the U.S. Qorchi (2005) reported that the number of Islamic financial institutions has quadrupled to more than 300 institutions over the past three decades. Total assets of Islamic financial institutions are estimated to be US$250 billion and are projected to be increase at about 15% rate per year, three times the rate of conventional banks. According to Ghafour (2007), the size of the world Islamic banking industry assets is estimated to have grown in excess of $265 billion from merely hundreds of thousands of dollars in the 1970s.