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  • In recent years researches on


    In recent years, researches on anthocyanins have attracted more and more attentions, especially their isolation and purification [13–15]. In contrast, there have been few studies focusing on chemical structures and antioxidant activity of anthocyanins in edible rose. Therefore, the aim of this study is to determine the structures and evaluate the antioxidant activity of anthocyanins extracted from rose so as to provide a theoretical basis for the effective exploitation of this feature natural resource.
    Materials and methods
    Results and discussion
    Conclusions In view of the results of both HPLC-PAD and HPLC-PAD-ESI/MS analysis, the major anthocyanins in Yunnan edible rose was Cy-3,5-diglu that accounted for nearly 94.9% of the total anthocyanins. The total phenol and anthocyanins content of purchase CP-673451 were (2087.43±17.37)mg GA equivalents and (353.56±2.50)mg Cy-3,5-diglu equivalents per 100g FW, respectively. The methanol extract from roses showed excellent reducing capacity and free radical scavenging activity against both DPPH and ABTS. Therefore, anthocyanins as a type of natural edible pigment, safe non-toxic, rich in resources and with a certain biological activity, have great application potential in food, cosmetic as well as pharmaceutical fields. However, the physiological properties of Yunnan edible roses in vivo still remain to be further studied.
    Introduction About 80% of the diseases in the world are due to poor quality of drinking water, and the fluoride contamination in drinking water is responsible for 65% of endemic fluorosis in the world [1–3]. Fluorosis is a slow, progressive, crippling malady, which affects every organ, tissue and cell in the body and results in health complaints having overlapping manifestations with several diseases. The disease “fluorosis” has now become a global problem and the health impairment due to fluorosis has occurred in the citizens of about 25 nations across the globe, and more than 200 million people worldwide are at the risk of fluorosis [4]. Fluoride toxicity depends for its severity on four factors (i.e.) the total dose ingested, duration of fluoride exposure, nutritional status and body\'s response [5]. Different forms of fluorosis are dental, skeletal and non-skeletal. Dental fluorosis is a developmental disturbance of dental enamel caused by excessive exposure to high concentrations of fluoride during tooth development. The risk of fluoride overexposure occurs between the ages of 3 months and 8 years. In its mild forms fluorosis often appears as unnoticeable, tiny white streaks or specks in the enamel of the tooth. In its most severe form, tooth appearance is marred by discoloration or brown markings. The enamel may be pitted, rough and hard to clean. The spots and stains left by fluorosis are permanent and may darken over time. The severity of dental fluorosis depends on the amount of fluoride exposure, the age of the child, individual response, weight, degree of physical activity, nutrition, and bone growth. Skeletal fluorosis is a bone disease caused by excessive consumption of fluoride. It causes pain and damage to bones and joints. Fluoride when consumed in excess, can also affect non-calcified tissues besides bone and teeth is called as non skeletal fluorosis. The soft tissue organs affected by fluoride are named in the following order: aorta, thyroid, lungs, kidneys, heart, pancreas, brain and spleen [6]. Fluoride is readily absorbed from the gastro-intestinal tract, with estimates of absorption ranging from 75% to 100% [7,8]. The systemic fluoride absorption from water through the gastrointestinal tract into blood stream is nearly 100% by the process of simple diffusion without any intervention of overall water quality [9–11]. Fifty percent of the ground water sources in India have been contaminated by fluoride and more than 90% of rural drinking water supply programs are based on ground water [12]. Fluoride intake from water depends on the amount purchase CP-673451 of water ingested through itself and the quantity of water ingested through food by means of water used for cooking and their fluoride content [13]. Many previous studies, from various parts of the world reported the development of dental fluorosis even if the people consume drinking water with fluoride less than 1.0mg/L [14,15], which implies that the optimal fluoride dose level in drinking water may vary with various features such as local climatic conditions, methods of food processing and cooking [16], amount of food and water intake and its fluoride and other nutrients level, and dietary habits of the community [17–19].